Urology Tests and Procedures

Common Tests A Urologist Recommends And Why

Various urology tests and procedures are required to diagnose pathological conditions related to the urinary system. Some tests are non-specific i.e. can be advised in both males and females while some urology tests are for males and some urology tests are for females.

What Are The Common Urological Problems?

The urological problem occurs in both males and females. Because of the proximity of the urological system to the genital system, women are more vulnerable to certain urological disorders such as urinary tract infection or urinary incontinence.

Following are some of the common urological problems;

Urinary Tract Infection

Women are almost 10 times more vulnerable to urinary tract infection as compared to men. Urinary tract infections may occur in any organ of the urinary system. Bacteria are the most common causative agent of urinary tract infection.

Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are formed when minerals are deposited in kidneys and interferes with the normal functioning of the urinary system. In most cases, the condition is caused due to highly concentrated urine that results in the crystallization of minerals.

Chronic Kidney Diseases

Chronic kidney disease is a prolonged and progressive deterioration of kidney functions. The kidneys are not able to effectively perform blood filtration.

Overactive Bladder

Patients suffering from this condition have an urgent need to urinate. The patient has difficulty in holding the urine and may result in urge incontinence.

Interstitial Cystitis

Interstitial cystitis is a chronic condition characterized by bladder inflammation. Patients experience pelvic pain, frequent urination, urge to urinate, and urinary incontinence.

Urological Cancer

Urological cancer may occur in various organs of the urinary system. Cancer may develop in ureter, urethra, kidney, and bladder.

Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

In benign prostate hyperplasia, the size of the prostate gland increases. This increase in size interferes with the normal flow of urine resulting in various symptoms.

Urinary Incontinence

Urinary incontinence is the condition caused due to a lack of bladder control. Women, due to pregnancy and menopause, are more prone to urinary incontinence as compared to men.

Polycystic Kidney Disease

This is a genetic condition characterized by multiple cysts in kidneys. These cysts have the potential to damage kidneys.

What Are The Commonly Performed Urology Tests In Both Male And Female?

Examination of the urinary system and its functioning is important to diagnose any problem in an early stage. Following are various urology tests and procedures that are advised by the urologists in both male and female;

Blood Tests

Certain metabolites are effectively eliminated by the kidneys from the body. However, in diseased conditions or low functioning conditions, these metabolites are not excreted and their level rises in the blood. Level of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen are measured to evaluate the functional capacity of the kidney.

Imaging Techniques

Various imaging techniques are used to analyze disease in the urinary tract. These include ultrasound, CT scan, and X-ray.


Based on symptoms and results of imaging tests, the doctor may advise a biopsy of tissues present in ureter, urethra, kidney, or bladder to exclude the possibility of cancer.

Stone Evaluation

Stones are formed due to the deposition of various types of minerals. Stone evaluation is done to determine the composition of the stone. It will help in designing precautionary measures to prevent further stone formation.

Urine Flow

Urinary flow is measured to determine the health of bladder muscles or any obstruction in the flow of urine.


During urodynamics, the nerve activity and muscle tone of the urinary bladder are measures. Pressure-measuring devices are inserted in the bladder during this test.

Which Urology Tests Are Specifically For Male?

Following are urology tests for males;

Prostate Biopsy

If the urologists think that enlargement of the prostate may probably be due to cancer, he may advise prostate biopsy.

Semen Analysis (Seminogram)

Although not directly related to the urinary tract, this test may be advised by the urologist in case the male suffers from infertility. Semen analysis determines the number of sperms, morphology, motility and overall quality of sperms.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Blood Tests

This test is done to diagnose the presence of inflammation in the prostate. Although not a confirmed marker for prostate cancer, a higher value of this test may indicate the further diagnosis.

Digital Rectal Exam

Gloved finger is inserted into the rectum to determine the size of the prostate gland. If the size of the prostate gland is larger, the urologist may advise further tests.

Which Urology Tests Are Specifically For Female?

Following are the urology tests for female;

Pelvic Examination

For evaluating various urological disorders such as urinary tract infection and urinary incontinence, the comprehensive pelvic examination of the female patient is done.

Ultrasound For Diagnosing Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Cystocele is a condition in which bladder prolapses into the vagina. The diagnosis of cystocele is generally done through ultrasound.

Tests For Diagnosing Urovaginal (urogenital) Fistula

Cystoscopy evaluation is generally done to diagnose urogenital fistula.


Urological diseases are diagnosed through urology tests and procedures. Some urology tests are only for males while some urology tests for females. However, most tests are non-specific and are done in both.

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