What is MPOX

Understanding MPOX: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

MPOX, also known as Myeloperoxidase Deficiency, is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system’s ability to fight off certain infections. This condition is characterized by a deficiency in myeloperoxidase, an enzyme found in white blood cells. In this article, we will delve into the details of MPOX, exploring its causes, symptoms, and available treatment options.

What is MPOX?

MPOX, or Myeloperoxidase Deficiency, is a hereditary condition characterized by a deficiency or absence of the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). Myeloperoxidase is primarily found in neutrophils, a type of white blood cell responsible for fighting off bacterial and fungal infections. Without adequate levels of MPO, the immune system’s ability to effectively destroy microorganisms is compromised.

Causes of MPOX

MPOX is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in the myeloperoxidase (MPO) gene. It follows an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the defective gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition. Individuals who inherit only one copy of the gene are considered carriers and typically do not exhibit symptoms.

Symptoms of MPOX

Increased Susceptibility to Infections: One of the primary symptoms of MPOX is an increased vulnerability to certain types of bacterial and fungal infections. Common infections associated with MPOX include respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and gastrointestinal infections.

Recurrent Infections: Individuals with MPOX often experience recurrent episodes of infection, with symptoms that may be more severe and
prolonged compared to individuals with a normal immune response.

Poor Wound Healing: MPOX can also result in delayed or impaired wound healing, as the absence or deficiency of myeloperoxidase affects the immune system’s ability to effectively eliminate bacteria from wounds.

Diagnosis of MPOX

MPOX is diagnosed through various tests, including:

MPO Staining: A blood sample is examined under a microscope, and the presence or absence of myeloperoxidase in neutrophils is assessed using a staining technique.

Genetic Testing: DNA analysis can identify mutations in the MPO gene, confirming the diagnosis of MPOX.

Treatment Options for MPOX

Currently, there is no specific cure for MPOX. Treatment focuses on managing and preventing infections and supporting overall health. The following approaches may be considered:

Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Long-term, low-dose antibiotic therapy may be prescribed to help prevent recurrent infections.
Infection Management: Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infections are crucial in individuals with MPOX. Timely administration of appropriate antibiotics and close monitoring of the infection’s progression are essential.

Immunizations: Vaccinations against specific pathogens can help reduce the risk of infections in individuals with MPOX. Consultation with a healthcare provider is important to determine the appropriate immunization schedule.

Wound Care: Special attention should be given to wound care, with thorough cleaning and appropriate dressings to prevent infection and promote healing.

Lifestyle Modifications: Adopting a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and adequate sleep, can support overall immune function.

Managing MPOX

Living with MPOX requires proactive management and care. Individuals with MPOX and their families can take the following steps:
Education and Awareness: Understanding the condition and its implications can empower individuals and their families to recognize early signs of infection and seek appropriate medical attention promptly.

Regular Medical Follow-ups: Routine check-ups with healthcare professionals are important for monitoring overall health, identifying potential infections, and discussing any concerns or symptoms.

Healthy Lifestyle: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including proper nutrition, regular exercise, and stress management, can contribute to overall well-being and immune function.

Supportive Networks: Connecting with support groups or organizations that focus on rare genetic disorders can provide a sense of community and valuable resources for individuals and families affected by MPOX.


MPOX, or Myeloperoxidase Deficiency, is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system’s ability to fight certain infections. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and available treatment options is crucial for individuals with MPOX and their families. Although there is no cure for MPOX, proactive management, infection prevention strategies, and proper medical care can help individuals lead fulfilling lives while effectively managing the condition. Ongoing research and advancements in medical science offer hope for improved treatment options and a better quality of life for those affected by MPOX.